1、There are many elements constituting(构成) European Culture.
2、There are two major elements： Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.
3、The richness(丰硕性) of European Culture was created by Greco-Roman ele
ment and Judeo-Christian element.
1、The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.
2、The economy of Athens rested on(依靠[yīlài]) an immense(无穷的)amount of slave labour.
3、Olympus mount， Revived in 1896(今世奥运会)
4、Ancient Greece(古)‘s epics was created by Homer.
5、They events of Homer‘s own time. (错)
(They are not about events of Homer‘s own time， probably in the period 1200-1100 B.C.)
6、The Homer‘s epics consisted of Iliad and Odyssey.
7、Agamemnon， Hector， Achilles are in Iliad.
8、Odysseus and Penelope are in Odyssey.
9、Odyssey(对其作品[zuòpǐn]发生影响。)—→James Joyoe‘s Ulysses(形貌一天的生存)。 In the 20th century.
10、Drama in Ancient Greece was floured in the 5th century B.C.
《Prometheus Bound》—→仿照式作品[zuòpǐn] Shelly《Prometheus Unbound》
《Oedipus the King》—→ Freud‘s “the Oedipus complex” (恋母情结) —→ David Herbert Lawrence’s《Sons and lovers》(劳伦斯)447页
B.He is the first writer of “problem plays”(题目剧) 在肖伯纳手中到达飞腾，属于。存在。主义[zhǔyì]戏剧的人物[rénwù]
C.Elizabeth Browning called him “Euripides human”(一个的人)
D.Realism can be traced back(追溯到) to the Ancient Greece.
To be specific(来说)， Euripides.
12、The only representative of Greek comedy is Aristophanes. 18页
Aristophanes writes about nature. —→主义[zhǔyì]湖畔派(The lakers)华兹华兹(新主义[zhǔyì]代表[dàibiǎo]作家[zuòjiā]《格列夫游记》《大人。国小人国》《暖和的提议》用嘲讽的写作[xiězuò]本领)
13、History (Historical writing)史学创作[chuàngzuò]
※ “Father of History” —→ Herodotus —→ war(between Greeks and Persians)
This war is called Peleponicion wars. 博罗奔泥撒，3
※ “The greatest historian that ever lived.” (有史以来最的汗青学家) —→ Thucydides —→ war (Sparta， Athens and Syracuse)
14、The Greek historical writing writes mainly about wars.
15、受影响。的传教士St. Paul. Democritus (Materialism)
16、中的哲学被基督教所汲取17、① Euclid‘s Elements剖析
It was in use in English schools until the early years of the 20th century. (汗青职位)
His work not only in geometry学，but also in arithmetic算术，， machanics机器， and hydrostatics.流体静力学
选择：Give me a place to stand， and I will move the world.谁的理论(Archimedes)
18、Architecture古构筑三大气概temple—→Parthenon帕特农神庙① The Doric style
is also called masculine style. (的)
but the Doric style is monotonous and unadorned ()
is sturdy (的)， powerful， severelooking (厉穆) and showing a good sense of proportions and numbers.
② The Ionic style
is also called the feminine style. (阴柔的)
is graceful (的) and elegant (的)。
The Ionic style often shows a wealth of ornament. (性)
③ The Corinthian style
is known for its ornamental luxury. ()
19、The famous temples： The Acrpolis at Athens and the Parthenon.
20、The burning of Corinth in 146 B.C. Marked Roman conquest of Greece.
21、The melting between Roman Culture and Greek Culture. (征服。的标记)
22、From 146 B.C.， Latin was the language of the western half of the Roman Empire.
Greek that of the eastern half.
23、Both Latin and Greek belong to Indo-European language.
24、The Roman writer Horace said “captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive”。
25、The dividing range(分水岭) in the Roman history refers to 27 B.C.
26、The year 27 B.C. Divided the Roman history into two periods： republic and empire.
27、The idea of Republic can be traced back to Plato‘s republic.
28、The land area of Roman empire reached its climax in 2 to 3 century.
29、north： Scotland east： Armenia and Mesopotamia
30、In the Roman history ，there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was guaranteed(包管[bǎozhèng]) by the Roman legions(罗马军团[jūntuán])
31、In the Roman history， there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was known as Pax Romana.(罗马帝国。)
32、名解In the Roman history ，there came two hundred years of peaceful time， which was guaranteed(包管[bǎozhèng]) by the Roman legions， it was known as Pax Romana
33、The Roman Law protected(呵护) the rights of plebeians (布衣)。
34、The important contribution made by the Romans to the European culture was the Roman Law.
35、After 395，the empire was divided into East (the Byzantine Empire) and West.
36、Cicero西赛罗he legal and political speeches are models of Latin diction拉丁语用词
described as Ciceronian.西赛罗式的
an enormous influence(伟大影响。) on the development of European prose.(散文)
37、Julius Caesar commentaries品谈论 “I came， I saw， I conquered.”
38、Virgil Aeneid 阿尼德
39、The pantheon was built in 27 B.C.
The world‘s first vast interior space.全国上所最大的室内。场合
40、The Colosseum(大理石像) it‘s an enormous.露天的环形影剧院
42、The representation form of Greek Democracy is citizen-assembly.古的体现情势。
43、The embodiment of Greek democracy is citizen-assembly. 古的情势。
一、What is the limitation of “Democracy” in ancient Greece？(名解简答)
(How do you understand “Democracy” in ancient Greece？ What is the difference between “Democracy” in ancient Greece and modern democracy？)
① Democracy means “exercise of power by the whole people”， but in Greece by “the whole people” the Greeks meant only the adult male citizens.
② Women， children， foreigners and slaves were excluded from Democracy.
二、How did the Greek Culture originate and develop？
① Probably around 1200 B.C.， a war was fought between Greece and troy. This is the war that Homer refers to in his epics.
② Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5th century B.C.
A. The successful repulse of the Persian invasion (入侵[rùqīn]) early in the 5th century.
B. The establishment of democracy.
C. The flourishing (蒸蒸日上的) of science， philosophy， literature， art and historical writing in Athens.
③ The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.
④ In the second half of the 4th century B.C.， Greece was conquered by Alexander， king of Macedon. Whenever he went and conquered， whenever Greek culture was found.
⑤ Melting between Greek culture and Roman culture in 146 B.C.， the Romans conquered Greece.
三、How did the Ancient Greek philosophy develop？
1、Pythagoras① All things were numbers.
② Scientific mathematics.
③ Theory of proportion.比例的理论
2、Heracleitue① Fire is the primary(的) elements of the universe.火是万物之源
② The theory of the mingling of opposites produced harmony.抵牾的同一
3、Democritus① the atomic theory.个原子理论开拓。者
1、Socrates①He hadn‘t works. We can know him from Plato’s dialogues.
②The dialectical method was established by Socrates.
2、Plato①The Academy is the first school in the world， it was established by Plato.
②He has four works. Dialogues， Apology， Symposium and Republic.
3、Aristotle①The Lyceum is the second school in the world， it was established by Aristotle.
②Aristotle is a humanist.
(2)、Five contending schools
①Under the leadership of Protagoras.
②The representative of work is On the God.诸神论
③His doctrine教义 is “man is the measure of all things”。人是权衡的尺度
①Under the leadership of Diogenes.
②The word “cynic” means “dog” in English.
③He proclaimed鼓吹 his brotherhood. And he had no patience with the rich and powerful.权力
①Under the leadership of Pyrrhon.
②His thought is not all knowledge was attainable可得到的， and doubting the truth of what others accepted as true.
①Under the leadership of Epicurus. 选择：按照向导者的名字定名
②Pleasure to be the highest good in life but not sensual肉欲 enjoyment.享乐
Pleasure could be attained by the practice of virtue.通过实施道德得到
Epicurus was a materialist. He believed that the world consisted of atoms.原子
①Under the leadership of Zeno.
②His thought is duty is the most important thing in life.
One should endure忍受。 hardship and misfortune with courage.勇气[yǒngqì]
Developed into Stoics‘ duty.
He was also a materialist.
四、What philosophy system did Plato established？
(Why do we say Plato‘s philosophy system was idealistic？ Do you think Plato built up a comprehensive的 system of philosophy？ )
1、It dealt with， among other things， the problem of how， in the complex， ever—changing world， men were to attain得到 knowledge.
2、The first case and physical天然 world should take the secondary case.
3、Idealistic of philosophy.
4、Many of Plato‘s ideas were later absorbed into Christian thought. (汲取到基督教的思维中)
五、What‘s the difference between Plato and Aristotle in terms of their philosophical ideas(system)？